Tag Archives: mikroC for AVR


In embedded systems, oftentimes it is needed to generate analog outputs from a microcontroller. Examples of such include, generating audio tones, voice, music, smooth continuous waveforms, function generators, voltage reference generators, etc. Traditionally in such cases the most common techniques applied are based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), resistor networks and external Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) chips like MCP4921. The aforementioned techniques have different individual limitations and moreover require external hardware interfacing, adding complexities and extra cost to projects.  XMega micros are equipped with 12 bit fast DACs apart from PWM blocks and again it proves itself to be a very versatile family of microcontrollers. In this post we will have a look into this block.

DAC Internal Block Diagram

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XMega External Interrupt

External interrupts are a must have feature in any microcontroller. Interrupts solve a lot of problem that would have otherwise been dependent on polling methods. For instance when we press the volume up key of a TV tuner’s remote controller, the remote controller quickly responds by transmitting the volume up command to the TV set and in turn the TV’s volume increases. This fast response is due to external interrupt issued by the remote’s button to the microcontroller it is connected to. If, however, all the keys of the remote were regularly and frequently scanned and then responded up on a press, the process would have been both slow and energy consuming because its microcontroller would then have never went to sleep or low power states and continuously kept scanning. In other words, the micro would have always ran despite no mandatory necessity and during standby conditions. This would have quickly drained the batteries. Since interrupt is typically used in such cases the remote controller will respond to a button press fast, wake up from sleep/idle/low power mode, transmit command data and then go back to sleep/idle/low power state. Thus the overall energy consumption is reduced while achieving fastest possible reaction. This is how real world applications work applying external interrupts.

XMega 3D


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XMega Analog Comparator

Previously we dealt with the XMega Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) block. We know that we can use the ADC to measure voltages and take decisions based on voltage values/levels but sometimes it is enough to detect voltage levels and not to measure the exact voltage values. In such occasions where we just need to check voltage levels relative to a reference or threshold value, we need an Analog Comparator (AC). An analog comparator can be used to compare two voltage levels and based on that it can be used to generate a logic output (0 or 1) to indicate which of the two levels is higher or lower than the other. That’s all and there isn’t much about analog comparators. The XMega family of micros come loaded with high performance dual analog comparator modules. However so far we saw that between the traditional 8-bit micros and the XMega micros, the major difference apart from programming is the overall nifty enhancements in all common hardware blocks. When it comes to the analog comparators of the XMega micros, the same is true. In this issue we will explore the XMega analog comparator block.

Block Diagram


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XMega I/O Ports

Any microcontroller must have I/O pins for taking inputs and providing outputs. The ATXMega32A4U just like any other micro has 34 programmable I/O pins divided unevenly amongst six IO ports. Most I/O ports are 8 bit wide. XMega I/Os have digital, analog and special purpose functions. Some I/O pins have more than one use. A quick view of the XMega I/O pins reveals the purpose of these pins.

XMega Interior

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Atmega8 measures ambient temperature and relative humidity using HSM-20G sensor

In one of my previous posts, I discussed about Sensirion’s SHT11 and SHT75 sensors, which are capable of measuring both temperature and relative humidity. They are digital sensors and provide fully calibrated digital outputs for temperature and relative humidity. I also illustrated how to interface those sensors with a PIC microcontroller. Shawon Shahryiar from Dhaka, Bangladesh shared this project with us where he describes a method of interfacing the HSM-20G sensor to Atmega8 for measuring the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Unlike Sensirion’s SHT series, this is an analog sensor that converts the two ambient parameters into standard output voltages.

Using HSM-20G sensor with Atmega8

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