Tag Archives: ARM Microcontrollers


Tiva C Clock System

Tiva C Launchpad External Clocks

The clock system of a microcontroller is a fundamental element. Clock system provides the heart-beat needed to keep applications running in a synchronous manner. In the case of Tiva C micros the clock system is as much as sophisticated and elaborate as with any other ARM micros. In this post we will explore this basic block of Tiva C micros. We will see that the clock system is a network of different clock sources and internal units that are intertwined in a complex but easy manner.

TM4C123x Features

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The World of TI’s Tiva C MCUs

launchpad-tivac-01

Most of us who work with electronics know the name of Texas Instruments (TI) as a manufacturer of several important digital and analogue ICs as well as fancy sophisticated scientific calculators. However many people don’t know that TI is also a manufacturer of some of industry’s best microcontrollers. TI’s portfolio of micros is pretty large. ARM micros are getting popular day-by-day and on that family of micros TI has some of the best devices one can imagine. One such family from TI is the Tiva C series. Enter the TM4C123x Tiva C micros – one of the best possible combination of high-end hardware ever integrated with an ARM Cortex M4.

launchpad-tivac-01

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STM32 Digital-to-Analogue Converter (DAC)

Block Diagram

After having played with Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC) of STM32 micros, the obvious next internal hardware block to deal with is the Digital-to-Analogue Converter (DAC). As the name suggests this block has just the complementary function of ADC. It converts digital binary values to analogue voltage outputs. The DAC block has several uses including audio generation, waveform generation, etc. Typically in most 8-bit micros, this block is unavailable and its need is somewhat loosely met with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block. This is partly because of their relatively less hardware resources and operating speeds. All STM32 micros also have PWM blocks but large capacity STM32s have DAC blocks too. The STM32 DAC block is not very complex and has similarity with the ADC block in terms of operating principle. The simplified block diagram below shows the major components of the STM32 DAC block.

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STM32 Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC)

STM32 Clock Tree

Most of us who have experienced 8-bit MCUs previously know how much important it is to have an Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC) built-in with a microcontroller. Apart from other hardware extensions unavailable in the early era microcontrollers, many former 8051 microcontroller users shifted primarily to more robust Atmel AVRs and Microchip PICs just for this important peripheral. I don’t feel it necessary to restate the advantages of having such a peripheral embedded in a micro. In traditional 8-bit MCUs aforementioned, the ADC block is somewhat incomplete and users have to work out tricky methods to solve certain problems. The ADC block of STM32 micros is one of the most advanced and sophisticated element to deal with in the entire STM32 arena. There are way too many options for this block in a STM32 micro. In this issue, we will explore this block. ADC Hardware Block Diagram Read more

Integrating STM32F4xx Standard Peripheral Library with MikroC Pro for ARM

IDE

STM32F4xx series micros are far more advanced than anything else similar in the market. Apart from being fast 32-bit MCUs, STM32F4s have rich hardware peripheral support with DSP engine bonus. In terms of capabilities versus price tag, STM32F4s are all-square-winners. In recent times there’s a surge in the STM32 user community. STM32 Discovery boards are proliferating like never before. In several occasions recently, I received tangible amounts of queries from readers regarding integration of STM32F4xx Standard Peripheral Library (SPL) with MikroC Pro for ARM and so even though it is not one of my mainstream posts on STM32 ARMs, I felt that I should address this topic. Previously I showed how to port STM32F1xx SPL for STM32F1xx series devices with MikroC. This post will not be different from the former one – only minute changes. I suggest readers to read the earlier post first before reading this one. STM32F4 Discovery Board

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