Exploring STC 8051 Microcontrollers – Coding

Clock System

STC8A8K64S4A12’s clock system is very straight forward. There are three available clock sources – two of which are internal. There is a high-precision 24MHz internal oscillator and a low accuracy internal 32kHz oscillator. Apart from these internal sources, we can also use external sources like external crystals or oscillators. The clock system block diagram is shown below:

To set desired clock frequency, we have a clock divider block right after clock selection block. The final output from the clock divider is the system clock that is feed to all peripherals.

We can also get system clock output via another block of clock divider. The output can be turned off or extracted from either pin P5.4 or P1.6.

BSP

 #define CLK_enable_IRC24_M                                          do{ \
                                                                          IRC24MCR = 0x80; \
                                                                          while((IRC24MCR & 0x01) == FALSE); \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_disable_IRC24_M                                         do{ \
                                                                          bit_set(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                          IRC24MCR = 0x00; \
                                                                          bit_clr(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_enable_IRC32_k                                          do{ \
                                                                          IRC32KCR = 0x80; \
                                                                          while((IRC32KCR & 0x01) == FALSE); \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_disable_IRC32_k                                         do{ \
                                                                         bit_set(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                         IRC32KCR = 0x00; \
                                                                         bit_clr(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_enable_EXT_clock_signal                                 do{ \
                                                                         XOSCCR = 0x80; \
                                                                         while((XOSCCR & 0x01) == FALSE); \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_disable_EXT_clock_signal                                do{ \
                                                                         bit_set(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                         XOSCCR = 0x00; \
                                                                         bit_clr(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
#define CLK_enable_EXT_crystal                                      do{ \
                                                                         XOSCCR = 0xC0; \
                                                                         while((XOSCCR & 0x01) == FALSE); \
                                                                      }while(0)  
                                                               
#define CLK_disable_EXT_crystal                                     CLK_disable_EXT_clock_signal
 
//sys_div                                                              
#define CLK_sys_clk_scalar(div)                                     CLKDIV = div
 
//src                                                             
#define IRC_24M                                                       0
#define EXT_xtal                                                      1
#define EXT_clk                                                       2
#define IRC_32k                                                       3
 
#define CLK_set_sys_clk_source_and_div(clk_src, div)                  do{ \
                                                                          if(clk_src == IRC_32k) \
                                                                          { \
                                                                             CLK_enable_IRC32_k; \
                                                                          } \
                                                                          else if(clk_src == EXT_clk) \
                                                                          { \
                                                                             CLK_enable_EXT_clock_signal; \
                                                                          } \
                                                                          else if(clk_src == EXT_xtal) \
                                                                          { \
                                                                             CLK_enable_EXT_crystal; \
                                                                          } \
                                                                          else \
                                                                          { \
                                                                            CLK_enable_IRC24_M; \
                                                                          } \
                                                                          CLK_sys_clk_scalar(div); \
                                                                          CKSEL = clk_src; \
                                                                      }while(0)
 
//mclk_div
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_no_output                                        0x00
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1                                            0x10
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_2                                            0x30
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_4                                            0x50
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_8                                            0x70
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_16                                           0x90
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_32                                           0xB0
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_64                                           0xD0
#define MCLK_SYSCLK_div_128                                          0xF0
 
#define CLK_MCLK_scalar(div)                                         CKSEL |= div
 
//mclk_pin_id
#define MCLK_out_P54                                                 0      
#define MCLK_out_P16                                                 1
 
#define CLK_set_MCLK(div, pin_id)                                    do{ \
                                                                          CLK_MCLK_scalar(div); \
                                                                          if(pin_id == MCLK_out_P16) \
                                                                          { \
                                                                             bit_set(CKSEL, 3); \
                                                                          } \
                                                                          else \
                                                                          { \
                                                                             bit_clr(CKSEL, 3); \
                                                                          } \
                                                                       }while(0)
 
#define CLK_set_sys_clk(sys_src, sys_div, mclk_div, mclk_pin_id)     do{ \
                                                                          bit_set(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                          CLK_set_sys_clk_source_and_div(sys_src, sys_div); \
                                                                          CLK_set_MCLK(mclk_div, mclk_pin_id); \
                                                                          bit_clr(P_SW2, 7);  \
                                                                       }while(0)

Code

 #include "STC8xxx.h"
#include "BSP.h"
 
void setup(void);
void toggle(void);
 
void main(void)
{
 
    setup();
    
    while(1)
    {
        
    };
}
 
void setup(void)
{
    P55_open_drain_mode;
    
    CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 4, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
    toggle();
    
    CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 6, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_8, MCLK_out_P54);
    toggle();
    
    CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 24, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
    toggle();
    
    CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_32k, 1, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
    toggle();
}
 
void toggle(void)
{
    unsigned char i = 10;
    
    while(i > 0)
    {
        P55_toggle;
        delay_ms(60);
        i--;
    };
}

Schematic

Explanation

This is yet another oversimplified example. Again, onboard LED toggling code is presented here.

Firstly, we need a LED toggling function because we want to visually observe what is happening.

 void toggle(void)
{
    unsigned char i = 10;
    
    while(i > 0)
    {
        P55_toggle;
        delay_ms(60);
        i--;
    };
}

P5.5’s LED is toggled 10 times. Note that although a 60ms delay is used between toggles, it will not be 60ms always as delays are dependent on system clock frequency. This will do the trick.

In the main, different clock settings are applied and the LED toggling is observed.

 CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 4, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
toggle();
   
CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 6, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_8, MCLK_out_P54);
toggle();
    
CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_24M, 24, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
toggle();
    
CLK_set_sys_clk(IRC_32k, 1, MCLK_SYSCLK_div_1, MCLK_out_P54);
toggle();

With different system clock speeds, the onboard LED toggling rates change.

Demo

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7 comments

  • Hi. Can you explain how to use I2C in the slave mode ?

  • Thanks for these tutorials. I’m getting back into STCmicro coding now, having left them alone for the past several years. Back then I only used the STC89C52RC (and C54RD) but this time I’m also using the more powerful STC15 and STC8 types. Your blogs provide a wealth of useful information.

  • Hello,

    You have done great job with all these tutorials. I am an electronics engineer trying to learn some new stuff. I am located in Greece , Europe and I would like to purchase the development board that you are using and download some datasheets in English if possible but I cannot find them anywhere. Could you please help me?

  • i always get excited when you release new tutorials ,you are really doing a great job i wish i could write code and develop libraries like you.

  • Well, this is very nice and thorough tutorial indeed, many thanks!
    Unfortunately I doubt there is good any reason to learn the STC platform beyond curiosity.
    The STC 8051, although pretty evolved from the original 8051 ISA, does not offer anything crucial to justify the relatively high price of these micros and development tools along with certain cumbersomeness of this ancient platform.
    They simply can not compete even with the legacy Cortex M0 in any way. I am even not aware about any affordable debugger/emulator for them.
    All in all, I would never recommend anybody to start learning/using any 8051 without some very good reason to do so.

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