Tinkering TI MSP430F5529

ADC12 and Direct Memory Access (DMA) Module

Apart from interrupt method, there is another way to doing AD conversions without polling/waiting. This involves DMA-backed AD conversion. DMA hardware is not a part of the ADC. In simple terms, it is rather more like a separate data pipeline bus that can be used without much interaction from the CPU. DMA-based AD conversions are in that way very silent. DMA can send AD conversion readings directly to user-defined memory locations automatically without any intervention. DMA can also be used for other hardware like SPI and UART. Shown below is the DMA block diagram of MSP430F5529:

Code Example

#include "driverlib.h"
#include "delay.h"
#include "lcd.h"
#include "lcd_print.h"

void clock_init(void);
void GPIO_init(void);
void ADC12_init(void);
void DMA_HW_init(void);

uint16_t memory_location = 0x0000;

#pragma vector = DMA_VECTOR
__interrupt void DMA_ISR (void)
{
    switch (__even_in_range(DMAIV, 16))
    {
        case 0: break;  //None
        case 2:         //DMA0IFG = DMA Channel 0
        {
            GPIO_toggleOutputOnPin(GPIO_PORT_P1,
                                   GPIO_PIN0);

            break;
        }
        case 4: break;  //DMA1IFG = DMA Channel 1
        case 6: break;  //DMA2IFG = DMA Channel 2
        case 8: break;  //DMA3IFG = DMA Channel 3
        case 10: break; //DMA4IFG = DMA Channel 4
        case 12: break; //DMA5IFG = DMA Channel 5
        case 14: break; //DMA6IFG = DMA Channel 6
        case 16: break; //DMA7IFG = DMA Channel 7
        default: break;
    }
}

void main(void)
{
    unsigned int volt = 0;

    WDT_A_hold(WDT_A_BASE);

    clock_init();
    GPIO_init();
    ADC12_init();
    DMA_HW_init();

    LCD_init();
    LCD_clear_home();

    LCD_goto(0, 0);
    LCD_putstr("ADC :");

    LCD_goto(0, 1);
    LCD_putstr("V/mV:");

    while(1)
    {
        volt = ((memory_location * 3300.0) / 4095.0);

        print_I(11, 0, memory_location);
        print_I(11, 1, volt);

        GPIO_toggleOutputOnPin(GPIO_PORT_P4,
                               GPIO_PIN7);
        delay_ms(200);
    };
}

void clock_init(void)
{
    PMM_setVCore(PMM_CORE_LEVEL_3);

    GPIO_setAsPeripheralModuleFunctionInputPin(GPIO_PORT_P5,
                                               (GPIO_PIN4 | GPIO_PIN2));

    GPIO_setAsPeripheralModuleFunctionOutputPin(GPIO_PORT_P5,
                                                (GPIO_PIN5 | GPIO_PIN3));

    UCS_setExternalClockSource(XT1_FREQ,
                               XT2_FREQ);

    UCS_turnOnXT2(UCS_XT2_DRIVE_4MHZ_8MHZ);

    UCS_turnOnLFXT1(UCS_XT1_DRIVE_0,
                    UCS_XCAP_3);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_FLLREF,
                        UCS_XT2CLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_4);

    UCS_initFLLSettle(MCLK_KHZ,
                      MCLK_FLLREF_RATIO);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_SMCLK,
                        UCS_XT2CLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_2);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_ACLK,
                        UCS_XT1CLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_1);
}

void GPIO_init(void)
{
    GPIO_setAsPeripheralModuleFunctionInputPin(GPIO_PORT_P6,
                                               GPIO_PIN0);

    GPIO_setAsOutputPin(GPIO_PORT_P1,
                        GPIO_PIN0);

    GPIO_setDriveStrength(GPIO_PORT_P1,
                          GPIO_PIN0,
                          GPIO_FULL_OUTPUT_DRIVE_STRENGTH);

    GPIO_setAsOutputPin(GPIO_PORT_P4,
                        GPIO_PIN7);

    GPIO_setDriveStrength(GPIO_PORT_P4,
                          GPIO_PIN7,
                          GPIO_FULL_OUTPUT_DRIVE_STRENGTH);
}


void ADC12_init(void)
{
    ADC12_A_configureMemoryParam configureMemoryParam = {0};

    ADC12_A_init(ADC12_A_BASE,
                 ADC12_A_SAMPLEHOLDSOURCE_SC,
                 ADC12_A_CLOCKSOURCE_ACLK,
                 ADC12_A_CLOCKDIVIDER_1);

    ADC12_A_setupSamplingTimer(ADC12_A_BASE,
                               ADC12_A_CYCLEHOLD_768_CYCLES,
                               ADC12_A_CYCLEHOLD_4_CYCLES,
                               ADC12_A_MULTIPLESAMPLESENABLE);

    ADC12_A_setResolution(ADC12_A_BASE,
                          ADC12_A_RESOLUTION_12BIT);

    configureMemoryParam.memoryBufferControlIndex = ADC12_A_MEMORY_0;
    configureMemoryParam.inputSourceSelect = ADC12_A_INPUT_A0;
    configureMemoryParam.positiveRefVoltageSourceSelect = ADC12_A_VREFPOS_AVCC;
    configureMemoryParam.negativeRefVoltageSourceSelect = ADC12_A_VREFNEG_AVSS;
    configureMemoryParam.endOfSequence = ADC12_A_NOTENDOFSEQUENCE;

    ADC12_A_configureMemory(ADC12_A_BASE,
                            &configureMemoryParam);

    ADC12_A_enable(ADC12_A_BASE);

    ADC12_A_startConversion(ADC12_A_BASE,
                            ADC12_A_MEMORY_0,
                            ADC12_A_REPEATED_SINGLECHANNEL);
}

void DMA_HW_init(void)
{
    DMA_initParam DMA_init_Param = {0};

    DMA_disableTransferDuringReadModifyWrite();

    DMA_init_Param.channelSelect = DMA_CHANNEL_0;
    DMA_init_Param.transferModeSelect = DMA_TRANSFER_REPEATED_SINGLE;
    DMA_init_Param.transferSize = 1;
    DMA_init_Param.triggerSourceSelect = DMA_TRIGGERSOURCE_24;
    DMA_init_Param.transferUnitSelect = DMA_SIZE_SRCWORD_DSTWORD;
    DMA_init_Param.triggerTypeSelect = DMA_TRIGGER_RISINGEDGE;

    DMA_init(&DMA_init_Param);

    DMA_setSrcAddress(DMA_CHANNEL_0,
                      ADC12_A_getMemoryAddressForDMA(ADC12_A_BASE,ADC12_A_MEMORY_0),
                      DMA_DIRECTION_UNCHANGED);

    DMA_setDstAddress(DMA_CHANNEL_0,
                      (uint32_t)(uintptr_t)&memory_location,
                      DMA_DIRECTION_INCREMENT);

    DMA_clearInterrupt(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    DMA_enableInterrupt(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    DMA_enableTransfers(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    __enable_interrupt();
}

Hardware Setup

Explanation

ADC12 is configured just as we already did in past examples but no ADC12 interrupt is used. The new changes are related to DMA configuration. We wish to transfer ADC data to our designated memory location with DMA hardware. Thus, we have to declare a word-sized global variable. We chose word size, i.e. 16-bit because ADC12 readings are typically 12-bit in size. This memory location will be used with DMA and that makes it important.

uint16_t memory_location = 0x0000;

DMA initialization requires a few parameters to be set in order to define the its characteristics.

void DMA_HW_init(void)
{
    DMA_initParam DMA_init_Param = {0};

    DMA_disableTransferDuringReadModifyWrite();

    DMA_init_Param.channelSelect = DMA_CHANNEL_0;
    DMA_init_Param.transferModeSelect = DMA_TRANSFER_REPEATED_SINGLE;
    DMA_init_Param.transferSize = 1;
    DMA_init_Param.triggerSourceSelect = DMA_TRIGGERSOURCE_24;
    DMA_init_Param.transferUnitSelect = DMA_SIZE_SRCWORD_DSTWORD;
    DMA_init_Param.triggerTypeSelect = DMA_TRIGGER_RISINGEDGE;

    DMA_init(&DMA_init_Param);

    DMA_setSrcAddress(DMA_CHANNEL_0,
                      ADC12_A_getMemoryAddressForDMA(ADC12_A_BASE, ADC12_A_MEMORY_0),
                      DMA_DIRECTION_UNCHANGED);

    DMA_setDstAddress(DMA_CHANNEL_0,
                      (uint32_t)(uintptr_t)&memory_location,
                      DMA_DIRECTION_INCREMENT);

    DMA_clearInterrupt(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    DMA_enableInterrupt(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    DMA_enableTransfers(DMA_CHANNEL_0);

    __enable_interrupt();
}

The operation of DMA peripheral is similar to that of a water pipeline. In a water pipeline, we have to define source of water and its destination along with flow direction and frequency of flow. We also have to define the pipe size (diameter) in order to avoid unwanted fluid pressure, back-flow and water loss. 

In similar terms, for a DMA peripheral, we have to define source and destination of data and the size of data. The source of data in this case is ADC12’s 0th memory location and the destination is the word-sized global variable we declared in the beginning of the code. We have to let the compiler know the physical addresses, i.e. pointer of the source and the destination.

MSP430’s DMA can support the following transfer modes:

We will be using 0th DMA channel in repeated single transfer mode since the ADC will be converting data repeatedly. The transfers will be in words and why it is so has already been explained. 

Since we are using repeated single transfer mode, a trigger source is needed that will initiate the transfer. In this code, the DMA trigger source is numbered 24.

The 24th DMA trigger source is selected because we want the transfer to occur when an AD conversion is ready to be read.

Though DMA interrupt has been used in the code, it does nothing rather than toggling P1.0 LED. This is merely an indicator of data transfer completion.

#pragma vector = DMA_VECTOR
__interrupt void DMA_ISR (void)
{
    switch (__even_in_range(DMAIV, 16))
    {
        case 0: break;  //None
        case 2:         //DMA0IFG = DMA Channel 0
        {
            GPIO_toggleOutputOnPin(GPIO_PORT_P1, GPIO_PIN0);

            break;
        }
        case 4: break;  //DMA1IFG = DMA Channel 1
        case 6: break;  //DMA2IFG = DMA Channel 2
        case 8: break;  //DMA3IFG = DMA Channel 3
        case 10: break; //DMA4IFG = DMA Channel 4
        case 12: break; //DMA5IFG = DMA Channel 5
        case 14: break; //DMA6IFG = DMA Channel 6
        case 16: break; //DMA7IFG = DMA Channel 7
        default: break;
    }
}

In the main loop, the destination memory location is read. Both voltage and ADC count are displayed on an LCD. P4.7 LED is toggled to indicated that LCD data update and memory read have been done. 

volt = ((memory_location * 3300.0) / 4095.0);

print_I(11, 0, memory_location);
print_I(11, 1, volt);

GPIO_toggleOutputOnPin(GPIO_PORT_P4, GPIO_PIN7);
delay_ms(200);

Note that in the code, we didn’t use any ADC12 function like the one shown below for reading the ADC.

ADC12_A_getResults(ADC12_A_BASE, ADC12_A_MEMORY_0);

We read the ADC indirectly using the DMA peripheral. 

Demo

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