Tinkering TI MSP430F5529

2 Wire (Software I2C) LCD

Alphanumerical LCDs need lot of pins (6 pins at least) for interfacing and in some cases, this is an expensive requirement. In such cases, hardware designs become complex and every pin is precious for their secondary roles. We can avoid this by using software-based I2C or SPI LCD drivers.

We can use I2C-based port expanders like PCF8574 or MCP23017 for this purpose.

Code Example

SW_I2C.h

#include "driverlib.h"
#include "delay.h"

#define SW_I2C_SDA_PORT GPIO_PORT_P8
#define SW_I2C_SCL_PORT GPIO_PORT_P8

#define SDA_pin         GPIO_PIN1
#define SCL_pin         GPIO_PIN2

#define SDA_DIR_OUT()   GPIO_setAsOutputPin(SW_I2C_SDA_PORT, SDA_pin)
#define SDA_DIR_IN()    GPIO_setAsInputPin(SW_I2C_SDA_PORT, SDA_pin)
#define SCL_DIR_OUT()   GPIO_setAsOutputPin(SW_I2C_SCL_PORT, SCL_pin)
#define SCL_DIR_IN()    GPIO_setAsInputPin(SW_I2C_SCL_PORT, SCL_pin)

#define SDA_HIGH()      GPIO_setOutputHighOnPin(SW_I2C_SDA_PORT, SDA_pin)
#define SDA_LOW()       GPIO_setOutputLowOnPin(SW_I2C_SDA_PORT, SDA_pin)
#define SCL_HIGH()      GPIO_setOutputHighOnPin(SW_I2C_SCL_PORT, SCL_pin)
#define SCL_LOW()       GPIO_setOutputLowOnPin(SW_I2C_SCL_PORT, SCL_pin)

#define SDA_IN()        GPIO_getInputPinValue(SW_I2C_SDA_PORT, SDA_pin)

#define I2C_ACK         0xFF
#define I2C_NACK        0x00

#define I2C_timeout     1000

void SW_I2C_init(void);
void SW_I2C_start(void);
void SW_I2C_stop(void);
unsigned char SW_I2C_read(unsigned char ack);
void SW_I2C_write(unsigned char value);
void SW_I2C_ACK_NACK(unsigned char mode);
unsigned char SW_I2C_wait_ACK(void);

SW_I2C.c

#include "SW_I2C.h"

void SW_I2C_init(void)
{
    SDA_DIR_OUT();
    SCL_DIR_OUT();
    delay_ms(1);
    SDA_HIGH();
    SCL_HIGH();
}

void SW_I2C_start(void)
{
    SDA_DIR_OUT();
    SDA_HIGH();
    SCL_HIGH();
    delay_us(4);
    SDA_LOW();
    delay_us(4);
    SCL_LOW();
}

void SW_I2C_stop(void)
{
    SDA_DIR_OUT();
    SDA_LOW();
    SCL_LOW();
    delay_us(4);
    SDA_HIGH();
    SCL_HIGH();
    delay_us(4);
}

unsigned char SW_I2C_read(unsigned char ack)
{
    unsigned char i = 8;
    unsigned char j = 0;

    SDA_DIR_IN();

    while(i > 0)
    {
        SCL_LOW();
        delay_us(2);
        SCL_HIGH();
        delay_us(2);
        j < 0)
    {

        if(((value & 0x80) >> 7) != 0x00)
        {
            SDA_HIGH();
        }
        else
        {
            SDA_LOW();
        }

        value < I2C_timeout)
        {
            SW_I2C_stop();
            return 1;
        }
    };

    SCL_LOW();
    return 0;
}

PCF8574.h

#include "SW_I2C.h"

#define PCF8574_address                 0x4E

#define PCF8574_write_cmd               PCF8574_address
#define PCF8574_read_cmd                (PCF8574_address + 1)

void PCF8574_init(void);
unsigned char PCF8574_read(void);
void PCF8574_write(unsigned char data_byte);

PCF8574.c

#include "PCF8574.h"

void PCF8574_init(void)
{
    SW_I2C_init();
    delay_ms(100);
}

unsigned char PCF8574_read(void)
{
    unsigned char port_byte = 0;

    SW_I2C_start();
    SW_I2C_write(PCF8574_read_cmd);
    port_byte = SW_I2C_read(I2C_NACK);
    SW_I2C_stop();

    return port_byte;
}

void PCF8574_write(unsigned char data_byte)
{
    SW_I2C_start();
    SW_I2C_write(PCF8574_write_cmd);
    SW_I2C_ACK_NACK(I2C_ACK);
    SW_I2C_write(data_byte);
    SW_I2C_ACK_NACK(I2C_ACK);
    SW_I2C_stop();
}

lcd.h

#include "PCF8574.h"

#define clear_display                                0x01
#define goto_home                                    0x02
         
#define cursor_direction_inc                         (0x04 | 0x02)
#define cursor_direction_dec                         (0x04 | 0x00)
#define display_shift                                (0x04 | 0x01)
#define display_no_shift                             (0x04 | 0x00)

#define display_on                                   (0x08 | 0x04)
#define display_off                                  (0x08 | 0x02)
#define cursor_on                                    (0x08 | 0x02)
#define cursor_off                                   (0x08 | 0x00)
#define blink_on                                     (0x08 | 0x01)
#define blink_off                                    (0x08 | 0x00)
                                    
#define _8_pin_interface                             (0x20 | 0x10)
#define _4_pin_interface                             (0x20 | 0x00)
#define _2_row_display                               (0x20 | 0x08)
#define _1_row_display                               (0x20 | 0x00)
#define _5x10_dots                                   (0x20 | 0x40)
#define _5x7_dots                                    (0x20 | 0x00)

#define BL_ON                                        1
#define BL_OFF                                       0

#define dly                                          2

#define DAT                                          1
#define CMD                                          0

void LCD_init(void);
void LCD_toggle_EN(void);
void LCD_send(unsigned char value, unsigned char mode); 
void LCD_4bit_send(unsigned char lcd_data);            
void LCD_putstr(char *lcd_string);
void LCD_putchar(char char_data);
void LCD_clear_home(void);
void LCD_goto(unsigned char x_pos, unsigned char y_pos);

lcd.c

#include "lcd.h"

static unsigned char bl_state;
static unsigned char data_value;

void LCD_init(void)
{                       
  PCF8574_init();
  delay_ms(100);

  bl_state = BL_ON;
  data_value = 0x04;
  PCF8574_write(data_value);

  delay_ms(10);

  LCD_send(0x33, CMD);
  LCD_send(0x32, CMD);

  LCD_send((_4_pin_interface | _2_row_display | _5x7_dots), CMD);         
  LCD_send((display_on | cursor_off | blink_off), CMD);     
  LCD_send((clear_display), CMD);         
  LCD_send((cursor_direction_inc | display_no_shift), CMD);        
}   

void LCD_toggle_EN(void)
{
  data_value |= 0x04;
  PCF8574_write(data_value);
  delay_ms(dly);
  data_value &= 0xF9;
  PCF8574_write(data_value);
  delay_ms(dly);
}
   

void LCD_send(unsigned char value, unsigned char mode)
{
  switch(mode)
  {
     case CMD:
     {
        data_value &= 0xF4;
        break;
     }
     case DAT:
     {
        data_value |= 0x01;
        break;
     }
  }

  switch(bl_state)
  {
     case BL_ON:
     {
        data_value |= 0x08;
        break;
     }
     case BL_OFF:
     {
        data_value &= 0xF7;
        break;
     }
  }

  PCF8574_write(data_value);
  LCD_4bit_send(value);
  delay_ms(dly);
}
    

void LCD_4bit_send(unsigned char lcd_data)       
{
  unsigned char temp = 0x00;

  temp = (lcd_data & 0xF0);
  data_value &= 0x0F;
  data_value |= temp;
  PCF8574_write(data_value);
  LCD_toggle_EN();

  temp = (lcd_data & 0x0F);
  temp <= 0x20) && (char_data <= 0x7F))
  {
    LCD_send(char_data, DAT);
  }
}

void LCD_clear_home(void)
{
  LCD_send(clear_display, CMD);
  LCD_send(goto_home, CMD);
}

void LCD_goto(unsigned char x_pos,unsigned char y_pos)
{                                                   
  if(y_pos == 0)    
  {                              
    LCD_send((0x80 | x_pos), CMD);
  }
  else 
  {                                              
    LCD_send((0x80 | 0x40 | x_pos), CMD); 
  }
}

main.c

#include "driverlib.h"
#include "delay.h"
#include "lcd.h"

void clock_init(void);
void show_value(unsigned char value);

void main(void)
{
    unsigned char s = 0x00;

    char txt1[] = {"MICROARENA"};
    char txt2[] = {"SShahryiar"};
    char txt3[] = {"MSP430F5529LP"};
    char txt4[] = {"Launchpad!"};

    WDT_A_hold(WDT_A_BASE);

    clock_init();

    LCD_init();

    LCD_clear_home();

    LCD_goto(3, 0);
    LCD_putstr(txt1);
    LCD_goto(3, 1);
    LCD_putstr(txt2);
    delay_ms(4000);

    LCD_clear_home();

    for(s = 0; s < 13; s++)
    {
        LCD_goto((1 + s), 0);
        LCD_putchar(txt3[s]);
        delay_ms(60);
    }
    for(s = 0; s < 10; s++)
    {
        LCD_goto((3 + s), 1);
        LCD_putchar(txt4[s]);
        delay_ms(60);
    }
    delay_ms(4000);

    s = 0;
    LCD_clear_home();

    LCD_goto(3, 0);
    LCD_putstr(txt1);

    while(1)
    {
        show_value(s);
        s++;
        delay_ms(400);
    };
}

void clock_init(void)
{
    PMM_setVCore(PMM_CORE_LEVEL_3);

    GPIO_setAsPeripheralModuleFunctionInputPin(GPIO_PORT_P5,
                                               (GPIO_PIN4 | GPIO_PIN2));

    GPIO_setAsPeripheralModuleFunctionOutputPin(GPIO_PORT_P5,
                                                (GPIO_PIN5 | GPIO_PIN3));

    UCS_setExternalClockSource(XT1_FREQ,
                               XT2_FREQ);

    UCS_turnOnXT2(UCS_XT2_DRIVE_4MHZ_8MHZ);

    UCS_turnOnLFXT1(UCS_XT1_DRIVE_0,
                    UCS_XCAP_3);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_FLLREF,
                        UCS_XT2CLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_4);

    UCS_initFLLSettle(MCLK_KHZ,
                      MCLK_FLLREF_RATIO);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_SMCLK,
                        UCS_REFOCLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_1);

    UCS_initClockSignal(UCS_ACLK,
                        UCS_XT1CLK_SELECT,
                        UCS_CLOCK_DIVIDER_1);
}

void show_value(unsigned char value)
{
   unsigned char ch = 0x00;

   ch = ((value / 100) + 0x30);
   LCD_goto(6, 1);
   LCD_putchar(ch);

   ch = (((value / 10) % 10) + 0x30);
   LCD_goto(7, 1);
   LCD_putchar(ch);

   ch = ((value % 10) + 0x30);
   LCD_goto(8, 1);
   LCD_putchar(ch);
}

Hardware Setup

Explanation

The initialization and working procedure of the LCD module is nothing different from the first LCD example. The only exception is the fact that a PCF8574 port expander is used to manipulate the LCD I/Os instead of direct host micro connection.

PCF8574 from NXP is an I2C-based 8-bit port expander. With just two GPIO pins or I2C pins we can read and write a complete external 8-bit GPIO port. This is what makes PCF8574 a GPIO expander.

Since we are yet to check out the hardware I2C option of MSP430F5529 micro, we will be using software-based I2C. The software I2C driver is coded in SW_I2Cheader and source files. The lines of code there are self-explanatory. All of the I2C operations are simulated by altering two GPIO pin states and using software delays. The important part, however, is the GPIO declarations and it is found in the following part of the SW_I2C header file.  

#define SW_I2C_SDA_PORT            GPIO_PORT_P8
#define SW_I2C_SCL_PORT            GPIO_PORT_P8

#define SDA_pin                    GPIO_PIN1
#define SCL_pin                    GPIO_PIN2

We are not going to read our LCD module and so we don’t need PCF8574_read function of PCF8574 library. We’ll just need the write function.

void PCF8574_write(unsigned char data_byte)
{
    SW_I2C_start();
    SW_I2C_write(PCF8574_write_cmd);
    SW_I2C_ACK_NACK(I2C_ACK);
    SW_I2C_write(data_byte);
    SW_I2C_ACK_NACK(I2C_ACK);
    SW_I2C_stop();
}

We send the address and command of the PCF8574 module first and then we send the port states. Note that the port states are sent just like the first LCD example.

Demo

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